Saturday, December 15, 2012

Military and Civilian Travel Checklist

These travel checklists are particularly useful for military persons who are (especially temporarily) posted in a different base or training facility away from their home unit. The checklists are also important for business travels involving conferences, presentations and meetings. Within a single day of training, there is usually a requirement to report in service uniform and change into civilian clothing when traveling to the airport. That means, the military personnel will bring a bag for civvy (civilian) kit for changing. Although hotels provide some of the items, for instance, shampoo, soap, and towels, it is beneficial to always bring personal items that the hotel have in their suites or rooms. The kits list below can be modified to suit the duration of the travel. For example, if the trip is only for one week, the number of uniform shirts can be three and the number of trousers can be only two (depending).

On the Uniform Kit, the lint remover is not part of the uniform but it is useful for removing unnecessary dirt, threads, and lint. With respect to the In Person kit, the earphones are also included in the list because although airlines provide earphones, their quality is not very good. The other kits are straightforward. These lists provide the basic items and are by no means complete, therefore, they are adjustable according to the military personnels' requirements and needs.

1. Peak Cap
2. Shirt short sleeves
3. Shirt long sleeves
4. Neck tie
5. Tunic
6. Name tag
7. Medals and Bars
8. Belt
9. Trousers
10. Shoes oxfords
11. Socks
12. Lint remover

1. Shoe polish, Kiwi
2. Gloss polish, Kiwi
3. Kiwi cloth
4. Shoe brush
5. Small brush for application (toothbrush)

1. Tooth brush
2. Tooth paste
3. Tooth pick
4. Dental floss

1. Shaving cream
2. Razor
3. Razor blades

1. Slippers
2. Shampoo
3. Soap
4. Towel
5. Deodorant

1. Shirt, golf
2. Shirt short sleeves
3. Shirt long sleeves
4. Jacket/Blazer
5. Necktie
6. Trousers, slacks
7. Pants, jeans
8. Belt
9. Shirt, indoor
10. Short pants
11. Underwears, briefs
12. Undershirts
13. Socks
14. Black shoes
15. Rubber shoes, sneakers, running shoes

1. Laptop computer
2. Laptop charger
3. Web camera
4. Alarm clock
5. Alarm clock backup battery

1. Passport
2. Ticket
3. Military ID, government photo IDs
4. Wallet
5. Cash for taxi
6. Keys
7. Cellular phone
8. Cell phone charger
9. Wrist watch
10. Ear phones

Military units, number of soldiers, commanders and troop formations

Different armed forces of the world have different ways of grouping their military personnel and have various ways of formation and assembly of troops too. A platoon consisting of a certain number of soldiers may vary in the total number of soldiers in a platoon of a different army of another nation. In short, each country has its own unique armed forces. The given numbers in the table below has a range of values representing the vast majority of the numbers of military members/soldiers for a given military unit of most armed forces of most militaries of countries and nations in the world.

Military unit --- Number of Soldiers ------- Commander

Squad ----------- 8 – 13 ------------------- Squad Leader
Platoon --------- 26 – 55 ------------------ Platoon Leader
Company --------- 80 – 225 ----------------- Captain/Major
Battalion ------- 300 – 1,300 -------------- Lieutenant Col/Colonel
Regiment -------- 3,000 – 5,000 ------------ Lt Col/Col/Brig Gen
Division -------- 10,000 – 15,000 ---------- Major General
Corps ----------- 20,000 – 45,000 ---------- Lieutenant General
Field army ------ 80,000 – 200,000 --------- General
Army group ------ 400,000 – 1,000,000 ------ Field Marshal
Army Region ----- 1,000,000 – 3,000,000 ---- Field Marshal
Army theater ---- 3,000,000 – 10,000,000 --- Field Marshal

The figures below are just examples and illustrations of the formations of military units. The basic unit in these example drawings is the squad. Then 4 squads make up a platoon, 4 platoons form into a company, 4 companies into a battalion and so on, using 4 as a common factor in the formations. The main purpose of these drawings is to show the reader the big picture of how military formations look like for a given way of grouping soldiers and troops.

Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in the Gun Powder Age, First Industrial Revolution, and Second Industrial Revolution

     This essay is about the Revolution in Military Affairs in the Gunpowder Revolution, First Industrial Revolution, and Second Industrial Revolution. These 3 revolutions will discuss the relevant changes and improvement in the technology, doctrine and organization in the military context of states from the period and era mentioned.

     The aim of this essay is to compare and contrast the Revolution in Military Affairs with respect to the Technology, Doctrine, and Organization during the Gunpowder Revolution, First Industrial Revolution, and Second Industrial Revolution. This will be explained in the Discussion with three major headings.



      Before the gunpowder revolution, warriors were mounted on horseback. These mobile units were called cavalry. The cavalry soon proved to be weak against infantry with longbows and pikes. After the gunpowder found its use in firearms, the use of the cavalry, bows and arrows, pikes, and similar weapons of war were hopeless against infantry with firearms. Cavalry warriors who were equipped with bows and arrows were inferior to infantrymen armed with guns. The use of cannons made the French expel the English invaders in France. The same weapons were used by the Spaniards to defeat the Moors out of Spain. The Ottomans (Turks) employed cannons and successfully were able to conquer Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).
     Another useful weapon made possible by the gunpowder was the artillery which leveled fortresses and castles to the ground. Artillery also found good use in ships. These ships mounted with artillery were extensively used by colonizers who sailed the high seas and established huge empires. The victory in wars in Europe and the World during this era was decided mainly by mastery of the tactics, strategy and technology of the Gunpowder Age.

  Doctrine and Organization:
     Technology alone is not enough to win a war. A successful military doctrine and organization must be in place. Doctrine has two major components: political and military. The political side covers all aspects including the political objectives and economy, while the military side covers the conduct of operations in order to accomplish the political objectives.
     During the Gunpowder Age, powerful kings, absolute monarchs, warlords, or super-lords, rule over a large kingdom and was the overall provider of war resources and armies of warriors. These absolute monarchs in turn would utilize their riches and resources to build, train, and organize larger armies which were in turn used to conquer and expand territories in the name of the monarch. A good example from history is Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden. At the battle of Breitenfeld, victory was brought about by excellent politics in the government coupled with the technological effectiveness and efficiency in the use of weapons, artillery and superior training of military force.


     The First Industrial Revolution in the 1800s brought a significant change in field of warfare. Railroads and locomotive trains provided rapid mobilization of troops in the battlefield. Trains, traveled about five times faster than mule-drawn wagons, which not only expedited the delivery of supplies but actually reduced the number of supply vehicles required. Faster travel meant more round trips in a given time. Faster travel also meant that cargoes, be they men or supplies, arrived at the front in better condition. Troops traveling by tram rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and consequently have the advantage of being combat effective and efficient.
     The introduction of steam engines and the advances in the shipping industry contributed to faster sea travel. The telegraph, code, and further developments also led to faster modes of communications. Most importantly were the improvements in weapon technology. Quick-firing artillery, high explosive shells, repeating rifles, and machine guns made it possible for fewer personnel to stop and kill a whole company or battalion of enemy soldiers.

   Doctrine and Organization:
     The state and the bureaucracy has been the main contributor of military success. Wars were planned, organized, and funded by the state. The state's resources were needed to harness the latest developments in weapons technology to arm its troops. Additionally, there was a growing sense of nationalism within the state. This resulted in a considerable decline in the employment of mercenaries. The military force soon became solely armies of the state and no private mercenaries. The doctrine of the offensive was also exploited by most of the powerful states. When war broke out in Europe in August 1914, major superpowers at once took the offensive and utilize the doctrine of the offensive emphasizing the power of the offensive spirit. "The best defense is offense itself."


     The Second Industrial Revolution saw important innovations in the land, water, and air warfare technology. The tank that was introduced by Britain in World War One was further improved. Sea power also was realized through the use of aircraft carriers. Air superiority was provided by aircraft with heavy bombing capabilities. The combination of tanks, infantry, and air support would later be used by the German Blitzkrieg or lightning wars based on speed and surprise. The arms used for the offensive warfare in the Second World War consisted of aircraft, tanks and trucks. The Germans initially were successful in employing these combinations of weapons to their advantage. Communications involving radios played a vital role in coordinating offensive forces be it tanks, aircrafts, or soldiers.

  Doctrine and Organization:
     The doctrine of the offensive was pushed to extremes and was successful in the Blitzkrieg or lightning wars. Although defensive doctrines were adopted, the offensive would emerge victorious. An infamous example of a defensive doctrine is the French Maginot Line. The Germans in 1940 quickly crippled this defense by their flanking maneuvres and fell in their hands.
     Effective bureaucracy led to the later success of the Allies. Military support from the industries resulted in mass production of parts necessary for weapons of war. This happened in the Soviet Union and the United States. In 1942, America already out-produced the Axis powers. America had 47,000 aircraft to 27,000, 24,000 tanks to 11,000, six times as many heavy guns. In her navy, America had 8,800 naval vessels and 87,000 landing crafts in four years. For every one major naval vessel made by the Japanese, America produced 16. This war production advantage made a great contribution to the Allied victory.
     Also, effective leadership and excellent personnel training were crucial elements in order to take advantage of the power of weapons and machinery. The fact that the Allies outnumber the Axis Powers in the number of personnel and weapons does not guarantee victory. A winning war doctrine was also key. This doctrine that comes from the high officials of the state would be in turn be carried out by effective leaders like Patton who was able to come up with a brilliant plan that used the American version of the Blitzkrieg which in effect was used to win over the Germans themselves.

     Victory in most wars or battles depends on three major elements: Technology, Doctrine, and Organization. Throughout the Gunpowder, First Industrial, and Second Industrial Revolutions, the winners were the states with an effective bureaucracy and excellent doctrine implemented through the military organizational structure that is able to harness the latest advances in technology.

See also:

* * *

Submarine Basic Information

Types of nuclear submarines:
SSK - diesel-electric hunter-killer submarine
SSN - fast attack nuclear submarine
SSG - cruise missile submarine, ship killer
SSGN - guided missile nuclear-powered submarine, large ship/enemy submarine killer
SSBN - ballistic missile nuclear submarine, nuclear war deterrence

U235, U238
- common fuels for nuclear reactors in nuclear submarines
- nuclear fuel with a melting point of 2800 C
- U235 consists of 0.72% natural uranium, fissile (sustains fission chain reaction)
- U238 consists of 99.3% natural uranium, not fissile (not capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission) 

- Zirconium alloys
- used for fuel rod barrier (cladding) for nuclear reactors
- absorbs lesser neutrons
- hard metal and highly resistant to corrosion

water-cooled nuclear reactor
1800 psi pressure to prevent corrosion

Weight of fuel required
25 lbs (pounds) of Uranium for the entire life of the core (30 years).

Limiting factor of submarine operations
90 days of food supply

nucleus absorbs neutron then explode

$ 2 Billion
average cost of nuclear submarine

$ 6 Billion
- cost of Ballistic Nuclear sub
- approximate cost of Aircraft Carrier

$ 250,000 per person
cost of training in order to work in a military submarine

Nuclear power
the more water temperature difference (delta T of water), the more power produced

Russian Typhoon submarine
175 meters x 23 meters
two pressurized water reactors (PWR)
163 crew
24,000 tonnes

Tonnage of US subs
average 7,000 tons USN subs

USS Enterprise
first nuclear aircraft carrier
200 MW (megawatts) of power
8 nuclear reactors (pwr)
80 aircrafts
3500 crew

Travel Checklist for Military, Business, and Vacation Trips

This travel checklist is for military professionals, business executives, and leisure vacation travelers. For the military personnel, this travel list is for Navy, however, for Army and Airforce, adjust the list with the corresponding uniforms in respective service environments. These travel items can be logically grouped or categorized according to purpose, similarity, convenience, or safety. To illustrate this, you can group electronic items such as portable dvd players, psp game consoles, power bars, chargers, pda, etc. For grouping with respect to safety, you can put pocket mirrors or other breakable and sensitive items in the middle of clothes for protection against impact and mishandling of airport workers, conveyors, and carriers. When buying electrical and electronic equipment, it is wise to check for interoperability. Some countries have different voltage and frequency standards, so a voltage range of 100-240 Volts and frequency range of 50-60 Hz should work in power source outlets having 110 Volts, 120 Volts, 220 Volts in 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Modern chargers for laptops, digital cameras, mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs, and other electronic gadgets have a flexible range of 100-240 VAC and 50/60 Hz. You can personalize your list according to your preferences. This list is arranged according to how it is packed in the luggage bag, kit bag (duffle bag), and hand-carry bag (suitcase or laptop bag).

Major airline weight limitations and size restrictions

Check-in Baggage (Luggage):
Maximum weight: 50 lbs or 23 kg
Maximum size: 62 in. or 157 cm - total of Length, Width, and Height

Hand-carry or Carry-on bag:
Maximum weight: 22 lb. or 10 kg
Maximum dimensions: 21.5 in. x 9 in. x 15.5 in. (55 cm x 23 cm x 40 cm)

For a simple list, you can group travel items according to these general categories:

1. Business or Work-related
2. Travel papers and documents
3. Bedroom stuff
4. Bathroom (toiletries)
5. Gym and Exercise
6. Casual
7. Entertainment
8. Miscellaneous (hangers, iron, etc.)
9. Carried, worn in person

Luggage bag (check in):
Tunic (coat) - navy
Long sleeved white dress shirts - navy
Short sleeves white dress shirt - navy
White mess dress shirt pleated - navy
Black dress pants - navy
Black sweater (winter) - navy
Peak cap headdress
Ball cap
Gloves combat
Gloves dress leather
Military Uniform Accessories:
- accoutrements
- epaulets
- shoulder boards
- name tags
- dog tag
- medals
- bars
- decorations
- belt navy
- neck tie black
- bow tie black
- cuff links for mess dress
Casual shirts long sleeves
Casual shirts short sleeved
Casual pants or trousers (slacks, chino, khaki fabric)
Bedroom shirts
Bedroom shorts
Shorts PT (Physical Training)
Gym shirts
Gym pants
Bath towel
Face towel
Hangers for clothes
Lint remover
Laundry bag
Nail cutter
Small multi-tool
DVD portable player
Padlock keys
Civilian Accessories:
- belt leather
- neck tie

Kit bag (duffle bag):
Naval Combat Dress (NCD) shirt blue
NCD shirt black
NCD jacket
NCD pants
NCD boots
Shoes oxford - navy
Shoes formal dress black
Shoes gym rubber sneakers
Socks combat
Socks dress
Socks PT (Physical Training)
Power bar
Shoulder bag
- shampoo
- conditioner
- bar soap
- deodorant (spray, roll-on anti-perspirant)
- toothpaste
- toothbrush
- dental floss
- dental toothpick
- mouthwash
- cotton buds
- hair comb
- shower sandals
Shaving kit:
- razor
- razor blades
- shaving cream
Shoe-shine kit:
- shoe polish
- shoe polish gloss
- kiwi cloth
- shoe brush soft bristles

Hand-carry bag:
Travel documents:
- travel itinerary
- posting message
- travel claims
- travel checklist
- baggage claim forms
- customs forms
- furniture and effects forms
- travel guide books
- maps
Laptop computer
Laptop charger
Ipad charger
Tablet computer
Tablet charger
Pocket notebook
Alarm clock
Cellphone charger
PSP game console (portable gaming system)
Games (discs, CDs, DVDs)
Digital camera
Battery chargers for electronic equipment
GPS receiver

Worn, Carried in Person (e.g. placed in pockets):
Immigration documents
Boarding pass
Travel tickets
Cellular mobile phone (smartphone)
MP3 player
MP4 player (video player)
Wrist watch
Keys (house, office, apartment, building, etc.)
Government-issued photo IDs
Other photo IDs
Credit cards
Medical or Health cards
Social Insurance cards
List of important contacts and phone numbers
Cash for taxi fare
Extra cash
Coins for payphones, etc.

Thursday, December 13, 2012

CANADIAN FORCES & USA Military Ranks: Navy, Army, Air force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard

Ranks of General officers:

NAVY --------------------- ARMY ----------------------- AIR FORCE

Admiral ------------------- General ------------------------ General
Vice-Admiral -------------- Lieutenant-General ------------- Lieutenant-General
Rear-Admiral -------------- Major-General ----------------- Major-General
Commodore --------------- Brigadier-General -------------- Brigadier-General

Ranks of Officers:

NAVY --------------------- ARMY ----------------------- AIR FORCE

Captain(N)------------------ Colonel ---------------------- Colonel
Commander ----------------- Lieutenant-Colonel ---------- Lieutenant-Colonel
Lieutenant-Commander ----- Major ----------------------- Major
Lieutenant(N) --------------- Captain --------------------- Captain
Sub-Lieutenant -------------- Lieutenant ------------------ Lieutenant
Acting Sub-Lieutenant ------- Second Lieutenant ---------- Second Lieutenant
Naval Cadet ---------------- Officer Cadet --------------- Officer Cadet

Ranks of Non-commissioned members (NCM's):

Senior NCM Ranks:

NAVY ---------------------------- ARMY ---------------------- AIR FORCE

Chief Petty Officer 1st Class ------ Chief Warrant Officer -------- Chief Warrant Officer
Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class ------ Master Warrant Officer ------ Master Warrant Officer
Petty Officer 1st Class ------------ Warrant Officer --------------- Warrant Officer
Petty Officer 2nd Class ------------ Sergeant --------------------- Sergeant

NAVY ----------------------------- ARMY ---------------------- AIR FORCE

Junior NCM Ranks:

Master Seaman -------------------- Master Corporal ------------- Master Corporal
Leading Seaman ------------------- Corporal --------------------- Corporal


Able Seaman ----------------------- Private (Pte) ----------------- Private (Pte)
Ordinary Seaman ------------------- Private (Pte (Basic)) --------- Private (Pte (Basic))

~~ o ~~ ~~ o ~~ o ~~ o ~~ o ~~ ~~ o ~~ ~~ o ~~ o ~~ o ~~ o ~~  ~~ o ~~ ~~ o ~~ o ~~



Five Star rank:

Fleet Admiral

Ranks of US Navy Commissioned Officers:

Vice Admiral
Rear Admiral (upper half)
Rear Admiral (lower half)
Lieutenant Commander
Lieutenant (junior grade)

Ranks of US Navy Warrant Officers:

Chief Warrant Officer 5
Chief Warrant Officer 4
Chief Warrant Officer 3
Chief Warrant Officer 2

Ranks of US Navy Enlisted Personnel:

Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy
Fleet/Force Master Chief Petty Officer
Command Master Chief Petty Officer
Master Chief Petty Officer    
Senior Chief Petty Officer
Chief Petty Officer
Petty Officer First Class
Petty Officer Second Class
Petty Officer Third Class
Seaman, Hospitalman, Fireman, Airman, Constructionman
Apprentice (Seaman, Hospitalman, Fireman, Airman, Constructionman)
Recruit (Seaman, Hospitalman, Fireman, Airman, Constructionman)



Ranks of US Marine Corps Commissioned Officers:

Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Lieutenant Colonel
First Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant

Ranks of US Marine Corps Warrant Officers:

Chief Warrant Officer-5
Chief Warrant Officer-4
Chief Warrant Officer-3
Chief Warrant Officer-2
Warrant Officer
Infantry Weapons Officer (Marine Gunner)

Ranks of US Marine Corps Staff Non-Commissioned Officers:

Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
Sergeant Major
Master Gunnery Sergeant
First Sergeant
Master Sergeant
Gunnery Sergeant
Staff Sergeant

Ranks of US Marine Corps Non-commissioned Officers:


Ranks of US Marine Corps Junior enlisted personnel:

Lance Corporal
Private First Class



Ranks of US Coast Guard Commissioned Officers:

Vice Admiral
Rear Admiral
Rear Admiral (lower half)
Lieutenant Commander
Lieutenant (junior grade)

Ranks of US Coast Guard Warrant Officers:

Chief Warrant Officer 4
Chief Warrant Officer 3    
Chief Warrant Officer 2

Ranks of US Coast Guard Non-Commissioned Officers:

Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard (MCPOCG)
Area CMC/MCPOCG (Reserve Forces)
Command Master Chief Petty Officer (CMC)
Master Chief Petty Officer
Senior Chief Petty Officer
Chief Petty Officer
Petty Officer First Class
Petty Officer Second Class
Petty Officer Third Class

Ranks of US Coast Guard Enlisted Grade:

Seaman Apprentice
Seaman Recruit



Five Star rank:

General of the Air Force

Ranks of US Air Force Commissioned Officers:

Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Lieutenant Colonel
First Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant

Ranks of US Air Force Enlisted Airmen:

Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force
Command Chief Master Sergeant
Chief Master Sergeant
Senior Master Sergeant
Master Sergeant
Technical Sergeant
Staff Sergeant
Senior Airman
Airman First Class
Airman Basic



Five Star rank:

General of the Army

Ranks of US Army Commissioned Officers:

Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Lieutenant Colonel
First Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Ranks of US Army Warrant Officers:

Chief Warrant Officer 5
Chief Warrant Officer 4
Chief Warrant Officer 3
Chief Warrant Officer 2
Warrant Officer 1

Ranks of US Army Enlisted Personnel:

Sergeant Major of the Army
Command Sergeant Major
Sergeant Major
First Sergeant
Master Sergeant
Sergeant First Class
Staff Sergeant
Private First Class
Private (PV2)
Private (PVT)